Hydrogen.Link is a new website with links to the most important information resources about H2, Hydrogen and Fuel Cells. The following resources provide details about hydrogen production, storage, distribution and other activities such as research plans and roadmaps, models and tools, and other related links.

In Europe hydrogen currently accounts for less than 2 percent of Europe’s energy consumption and is primarily used to produce chemical products, such as plastics and fertilisers. 96 percent of Europe’s hydrogen is produced from natural gas. But, hydrogen can also be produced from renewable energy. The so-called renewable hydrogen (aka green or clean hydrogen) will play a key role in the energy transition in Europe but also globally. With Hydrogen.Link all these resources will be available.

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Hydrogen, which serves as a fuel, is not a primary energy, but must be produced from primary energy in the same way as electricity. Energy is required for its production. This is partially released again during the chemical reaction in a hydrogen combustion engine or in the fuel cell. Due to its low density, hydrogen gas contains more energy per unit weight than any other chemical fuel.

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However, the energy density is very low in volume terms. Therefore, hydrogen as a fuel must either be strongly compressed (up to about 700 bar) or liquefied (-253 °C). Both involve additional energy input. Furthermore, LOHC technology can bind the hydrogen by separate processes, making the two previously mentioned processes superfluous. However, energy is also required in the bonding process.

Linking Hydrogen resources

When hydrogen is burned in combination with air (in a gas turbine), the exhaust gases also contain nitrogen oxides, which are formed from the atmospheric nitrogen at the high temperatures in the combustion chamber. If there is a high excess of air fewer nitrogen oxides are produced, but efficiency then also drops. In piston engines, traces of CO and CH continue to enter the exhaust gas. They come from the lubricating oil between the cylinder wall and the piston and from the crankcase ventilation.

The thermochemical conversion of carbonaceous energy sources (usually fossil fuels) at temperatures of 300-1000 °C. The oldest process of this type is steam reforming with a market share of over 90%. In the past, this process was used to produce town gas (synthesis gas) from coal and steam, which contained approx. 60 % hydrogen. Through further process steps, almost the entire energy content of the energy source can be bound to hydrogen. The disadvantage of this process is the climate-damaging gas CO2 that is produced. There are also technologies to produce hydrogen from biomass in a climate-neutral way. A first commercial plant, the Blue Tower, was not completed due to the insolvency of Solar Millennium AG.

Hydrogen is a byproduct of a number of chemical processes (e.g., chlor-alkali electrolysis). The quantities are considerable, but are mostly reused. The hydrogen produced as a by-product in the Cologne region alone would be sufficient to power 40,000 passenger cars on a permanent basis (as of 2010).

Hydrogen is still produced comparatively rarely by electrolysis of water. Here, efficiencies of 70-80 % are now achieved (see also Technical water electrolysis). There are currently projects in which the electrolyzer is supplied directly by wind turbines. Wind turbines are now taken off the grid on windy days with low electricity demand; they could then be used instead for electrolysis for hydrogen production. In addition to the amount of energy required, the provision of the necessary water is also problematic: “To supply all the aircraft refueling at Frankfurt Airport with hydrogen from the electrolysis of water would require the energy of 25 large power plants. At the same time, this would double Frankfurt’s water consumption.”

Attempts to produce hydrogen in a hydrogen bioreactor using algae via a variant of photosynthesis are still in the research stage.

Research Plans and Roadmaps

Materials Centers of Excellence Final Reports

Models and Tools

  • The Recommended Best Practices for the Characterization of Storage Properties of Hydrogen Storage Materials serves as a resource for the hydrogen materials development community on common methodologies and protocols for measuring critical performance properties of advanced hydrogen storage materials.
  • The Hydrogen Storage Materials Database provides the research community with easy access to searchable, comprehensive, up-to-date materials data in one central location on adsorbents, chemicals, and metal hydrides. The database also includes information from DOE-funded research—pulled from a number of sources, including the historical Hydride Information Center database, DOE-funded research projects, and the former DOE Centers of Excellence—and is being expanded to include non-DOE, international, and computational sources.The Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence (HSECoE) provides engineering, design, and system models required for optimizing onboard subsystems. Find various models developed by the HSECoE for use by the research and development community.DOE Hydrogen Program program records provide the source of key numbers and facts.

Research Plans and Roadmaps

Models and Tools

  • The H2A Production Analysis tool was developed to provide a freely available, transparent, and consistent analysis tool to estimate the cost of hydrogen from different production pathways. Case studies are available for some general production pathways.
  • DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program program records provide the source of key numbers and facts.

Additional Resources

Also, watch out our other hydrogen domain names at https://h2re.wordpress.com/our-hydrogen-portfolio.

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